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Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

1. The Satapatha Brahmana and Taitriya Brahmana are the Brahmana texts of ___:

[A] Rigveda
[B] Yajurveda
[C] Samaveda
[D] Atharavaveda


Notes- Satapatha Brahmana and Taitriya Brahmana are the Brahmana texts of Yajurveda.

2. The conversation between Nagasena and Menander-I related to Buddhism is recorded in which book?

[A] Milindapanho
[B] Panhomenanda
[C] Nagapanho
[D] Menandapanho

Ans- A

Notes-Before becoming a Buddhist, Menander (an Indo-Greek king) asked Nagasena many questions relating to Buddhism.These questions and Nagasena’s answers are recorded in a form of a book known as ‘Milindapanho (or The Questions of Milinda).

3. In Pali texts, who among the following is referred to as Nigantha Nataputta?

[A] Gautam Buddha
[B] Mahavira
[C] Parshvanatha
[D] Rishabha

Correct Answer: B [ Mahavira ]

In Pali Buddhist texts, most notably the Sutta Pitaka, Lord Mahavira is referred and addressed as ‘Nigantha Nataputta’. Nigantha means one without any bonds or ties. Nataputta means son of Jnatri clan to which Mahavira belonged. This name referred to Mahavira’s state as an ascetic who had renounced worldly pleasures and ties. The term contrasts Buddhism’s middle path to Jainism’s ascetic path to moksha or liberation.

4. Which among the following Mudra is the gesture of Buddha as depicted in his first sermon?

[A] Abhaya Mudra
[B] Dhyana Mudra
[C] Dharmachakra Mudra
[D] Bhumisparsa Mudra

Correct Answer: C [ Dharmachakra Mudra ]

The sermon Buddha gave to the five monks was his first sermon, called the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta. The Seated Buddha from Gandhara is an early statue of the Buddha made in Gandhara, in modern Pakistan, in the 2nd or 3rd century The pose, which was to become one of a number of standard ones, shows Buddha as a teacher setting the wheel of Dharma in motion (Dharmachakra Mudra). Buddha did this following his enlightenment and after delivering his first sermon at the deer park at Sarnath near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.

5. Which among the following major rock edicts of Ashoka are in Kharosthi script?

[A] Mansehra and Sahbazgarhi
[B] Sanchi
[C] Sarnath
[D] Bairut

Correct Answer: A [ Mansehra and Sahbazgarhi ]

The two major rock edicts of Ashoka viz. Mansehra and Sahbazgarhi are in Kharosthi script. These both the rock edicts are in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

6. Which of the following types of Vedic priests was most responsible for making correct arrangements for vedic sacrificial rites?

[A] Hotri
[B] Udgatri
[C] Adhvaryu
[D] Nakshotri

Correct Answer: C [ Adhvaryu ]

Adhvaryu In the operational aspects of Vedic fire rites, the Adhvaryu was a central figure because he was the one who measured the sacrificial ground, built all that was needed and prepared materials to be used like, articles of oblation, utensils, woods and water. He also kindled the fire for expected offerings. Thus, success of a Yajna was dependent on correct duties of the Adhvaryu priest.

7. Who was the founder of Kushana Empire in India?

[A] Vima Kadphises
[B] Kujula Kadphises
[C] Kanishka
[D] Vasudeva

Correct Answer: B [ Kujula Kadphises ]

Kujula Kadphises was the first Yueh Chi chief who crossed the Hindukush Mountains and laid down the foundation of the Kushana Empire. He adopted the epithet of Dharma-thida and Sachdharmathida.

8.Evidence of a game that was very similar to chess was found at which of the following sites at Indus valley civilization?

[A] Harappa
[B] Lothal
[C] Mohen Jo dero
[D] Kalibangan

Correct Answer: B [Lothal]

There is a close resemblance between various types of terracotta games-men found in Lothal and modern chessmen. That led to some scholars claim that Chess had its origin in games of the Indus Valley Civilization. However, other scholars believe that Chess originated in India as Chaturanga between 400 BC to 400 AD.

9. Battle of the Hydaspes was fought between Alexander and King Porus in 326 BC. Hydapses means which river________?

[A] Jelum
[B] Indus
[C] Beas
[D] Ravi

Correct Answer: A [Jelum]

Alexander invaded India in 326 BC. In 326 BC, the Battle of Hydaspes was fought between Alexender the great and Porus along the banks of Haydaspes river( Jhelum river) in Punjab. Porus, the King of Paurava, ruled the area between the rivers Hydaspes (modern Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab). Though, Porus was defeated, Alexendar was impressed by Porus’s might so asked Porus to rule his dynasty under his name.

10. Which of the following is not an event in ancient Indian history in BC era?

[A] Foundation of the Indo-Greek empire
[B] Beginning of Vikram Samvat Era
[C] Fourth Buddhist Council
[D] Hathigumpha inscription by Kharvela

Correct Answer: C [ Fourth Buddhist Council]

Foundation of the Indo-Greek empire by Demetrius in 182 BC. Beginning of Vikram samvat Era in 58BC by Vikramaditya of Ujjain. Fourth Buddhist Council was held in Kundalvana, Kashmir in 72 AD under the patronage of Kushan king Kanishka. The King Kharavela of Kalinga left Hathigumpha inscription in around 50BC. So correct answer would be C.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

11. What was the name of the judges and judicial officers in Satvahana Dynasty?

[A] Amatya
[B] Rajukas
[C] Bhoja
[D] Gamika

Correct Answer: B [Rajukas]

12. The Jorwe culture of ancient India has been named after site of the same name in which of the following states?

[A] Rajasthan
[B] Gujarat
[C] Karnataka
[D] Maharashtra

Correct Answer: D [ Maharashtra]

Jorwe Ware Culture is named after site of the same name in Maharashtra. This culture dates between 1600 to 1000 BC. The key features of this culture include red pottery, generally with matt surface bearing paintings in black.

13. Which is the only Indus city whose citadel and lower town are together surrounded by its city brick walls?

[A] Kalibangan
[B] Lothal
[C] Dholavira
[D] Shortughai

Correct Answer: B [Lothal]

Lothal, located in modern day Gujarat, India, is the only major Harappan city whose ruins clearly show an outer wall of baked bricks surrounding both its citadel mound and lower town. This indicates organized urban planning with a defensive perimeter wall to protect residents. Given Lothal’s coastal location, the wall provided security and control of river trade access. Uniform organization of housing also indicates governance policies and administration were practiced in Harappan cities over 4000 years ago.

14. Which Harappan site gives more evidences with regard to the transition from the pre-Harappan to the mature Harappan culture?

[A] Harappa
[B] Kalibangan
[C] Chanhudaro
[D] Amri

Correct Answer: D [Amri]

The archaeological site of Amri, located in present-day Sindh province of Pakistan closer to the Indus river, has revealed more cultural artifacts showing the gradual evolution and transition from the Early Harappan Phase to the beginning of the Mature Harappan period in the Indus Valley tradition between 3000 BCE to 2600 BCE. The excavated remains indicate trade networks and ceramic styles were transforming as early political consolidation was ongoing prior to the height of the Indus Urban era.

15. Which of the following is the the largest Indus site?

[A] Harappa
[B] Chanhudaro
[C] Mohenjodaro
[D] Rangpur

Correct Answer: C [Mohenjodaro]

Extending around 300 hectares at its peak, Mohenjo-daro located near the banks of the Indus river in Larkana district, Sindh, stands out as one of the largest and most complex Harappan city demonstrating advanced town planning, architecture and infrastructure. It remained an important settlement for over 700 years as a regional capital.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

16. How many Upanishads are there?

[A] 100
[B] 104
[C] 106
[D] 108

Correct Answer: D [108]

The literal meaning of ‘Upanishad’ is ‘to sit near someone’. There are in total 108 Upanishads, of which 13 are the most prominent. The Upanishads dwell into the topics of the ‘Atman’ and ‘Brahman’.

17. Which of the following is also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata?

[A] Mahavira
[B] Valmiki
[C] Upali
[D] Buddha

Correct Answer: D [Buddha]

Gautama Buddha is also known as Sakyamuni or Tathagata. He was born as Siddhartha in 563 BCE at Lumbini (near Kapilavastu, Nepal) to the King Suddhodana (chief of republican Sakya clan).

18. Which of the following was the main expounder of materialistic philosophy?

[A] Ajivikas
[B] Charvaka
[C] Buddhism
[D] Jainism

Correct Answer: B [Charvaka]

Charvaka was the main expounder of materialistic philosophy. Charvakas rejected Vedas and any rituals. They were opposed to the idea of God or any other supernatural power. Most of its literature is lost now.

19. Buddha took his last meal in the capital city of which of the following mahajanapada?

[A] Mallas
[B] Vajji
[C] Cheti
[D] Vatsa

Correct Answer: A [Mallas]

Mallas was one of the sixteen mahajanapada of the sixth century BCE. Its capitals were Kushinara and Pava. It was at Pava where Buddha took his last meal and was taken ill. Buddha went to his Mahaparinirvana at Kusinara.

20. Which of the following items were exported in the 6th century BCE?

[A] Jade
[B] Gold
[C] Pearls
[D] Silver

Correct Answer: C [Pearls]


In the 6th century, trade flourished with different countries like Myanmar, Afghanistan, Iran, and Mesopotamia. Major items of import included gold, lapis lazuli, jade, silver, etc and items of export included finished crafts, textile goods, sandalwood, and pearls.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

21. In which Rock Edict royal pleasure tours (Vihara-yatras) were replaced by dhamma tours (dhamma-yatras)?

[A] Seventh Edict
[B] Fifth Edict
[C] Eighth Edict
[D] Tenth Edict

Correct Answer: C [Eighth Edict]

In the Eighth rock Edict, royal pleasure tours which were also called Vihara-yatras were replaced by Dhamma tours also called Dhamma-yatras. It describes Ashoka’s first Dhamma Yatra to Bodhgaya & Bodhi Tree.

22. Which of the following was a great center for the manufacturing of Shataka in the post-Mauryan times?

[A] Varanasi
[B] Mathura
[C] Taxila
[D] Patliputra

Correct Answer: B [Mathura]


In the post-Mauryan period, the techniques of cloth-making, silk- weaving, and the manufacture of luxury articles developed. Mathura was a great center for the manufacture of a special type of cloth which was called shataka.

23. Which of the following was the capital of Indo-Greeks in the Indian subcontinent?

[A] Gandhara
[B] Sakala
[C] Taxila
[D] Peshwar

Correct Answer: B [Sakala]

The capital of Menander was located at Sakala, that is, modern Sialkot in Punja. He is believed to have invaded and conquered the Ganga-Yamuna doab but failed to retain it for long.

24. Which of the following were the first rulers in India to issue coins which can be definitely attributed to any dynasty?

[A] Mauryans
[B] Indo-Greeks
[C] Shakas
[D] Kushans

Correct Answer: B [Indo-Greeks]

The first rulers in India to issue coins (gold, silver, copper, and nickel) which can be definitely attributed to any dynasty were the Indo-Greek rulers. They were also the first to issue gold coins in India.

25. The achievements of Gautamiputra Satkarni were described and eulogised after his death in which of the following inscriptions?

[A] Junagarh Inscription
[B] Naneghat Inscription
[C] Nashik Inscription
[D] None of the above

Correct Answer: C [Nashik Inscription]

The achievements of Satavahana King  Gautamiputra Satkarniare were described and eulogised after his death, during his son Pulumayi II’s reign, in a Nashik Inscription of his mother Gautami Balashri. The inscription is written in Prakrit.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

26. The Satavahana kingdom was divided into subdivisions which were known as?

[A] Aharas
[B] Grama
[C] Bhoga
[D] None of the above

Correct Answer: A [Aharas]


The Satavahanas Kings retained some of the administrative units which were used during Ashokan times. The kingdom was divided into subdivisions called aharas or rashtras, meaning districts.

27. Which of the following kings started the Shaka era?

[A] Kadphises I
[B] Kanishka
[C] Vima Kadphises
[D] Vasudeva II

Correct Answer: B [Kanishka]

Kanishka, who was the third ruler of the Kushana empire believed to have started the shaka era. He ascended the throne in 78 AD, and this date is used as the beginning of the Saka calendar era. It is now used by the Government of India for its calendar.

28. Which of the following kings was the last ruler of the Kushana empire?

[A] Kadphises I
[B] Ashvagosha
[C] Vasudeva II
[D] Vima Kadphises

Correct Answer: C [Vasudeva II]

Kushan dynasty was founded by Kujula Kadphises or Kadphises I in the first century CE. Kanishka was the most famous of the Kushan kings and Vasudeva II  was the last Kushan emperor who ruled from 275 CE–300 CE.

29. At which of the following places the famous relief scene of Vishnu rescuing the earth from the waters in the form of Nri-Varaha can be found?

[A] Sarnath
[B] Udaigiri
[C] Mathura
[D] Khairigarh

Correct Answer: B [Udaigiri]

The famous relief scene of God Vishnu rescuing the earth from the waters in the form of Nri-Varaha which has the body of a man and head of a boar can be found in the caves at Udaigiri, near Vidisha.

30. Which of the following kings is considered as the last known ruler of the Nandivardhana branch of the Vakataka dynasty?

[A] Prithvisena I
[B] Rudrasena II
[C] Pravarasena II
[D] Prithivisena II

Correct Answer: D [Prithivisena II]

The last known ruler of the Nandivardhana branch of the Vakataka dynasty was Prithvisena II. He is credited with the revival of the fallen fortunes of the Vakatakas. He also had to face the invasion of Harisena of Vatsagulma.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

31. In the early medieval India, which of the following refers to tax levied upon the whole village?

[A] Bhoga
[B] Kara
[C] Hiranya
[D] Pindka

Correct Answer: D [Pindka]

The land-grants of the early medieval period mention Bhaga, Bhoga, Kara and Hiranya as the chief sources of revenue to the donees. Pindaka was a tax which was levied upon the whole village.

32.Brihanmanasa was written by which of the following?

[A] Bhaskaracharya
[B] Nagarjuna
[C] Manu
[D] Balabhadra

Correct Answer: C [Manu]

Brihanmanasa was written by Manu in the last quarter of ninth century. Laghumanasa which was composed by Munjala in about 932 AD is based on Brihanmanasa only.

33. Which of the following wrote his commentary on the Manusmriti?

[A] Visvarupa
[B] Bharuchi
[C] Medhatithi
[D] Yogloka

Correct Answer: C [Medhatithi]

Medhatithi (825-900 AD.) was the first Sanskrit scholar who wrote his commentary on the Manusmriti commonly known as Laws of Manu. Manusmiriti is a part of Hindu Dharmashastras.

34. Which of the followijng kings Secceeded the king Govinda III?

[A] Dhruva
[B] Govind III
[C] Dantidurga
[D] Amoghavarsha I

Correct Answer: D [Amoghavarsha I ]

Amoghavarsha I who ruled the Rashtrakuta empire from 814A.D. to 878 A.D. HE was the successor of king Govind III. He is considered as the greatest ruler of the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and one of the great emperors of India.

35. Which of the following acquired the title of dakshinapatheshvara?

[A] Kirtivarman I
[B] Pulkeshin II
[C] Vikramaditya I
[D] Vikramaditya II

Correct Answer: B [Pulkeshin II ]

Pulkeshin II acquired the title of dakshinapatheshvara which means the lord of the south. He defeated Harsha in 637-638 AD. Pulkeshin II led many expeditions against eastern Deccan kingdoms, south Kosala and Kalinga.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

36. Which of the following later Chalukyan king killed Munja, the Paramara king of Malava?

[A] Vikramaditya V
[B] Jayasimha I
[C] Tailapa II
[D] None of the above

Correct Answer: C [Tailapa II]

Taila or Tailapa II conquered Chedi, Orissa, Nepal and Kuntala. Consequently, the later Western Chalukyas took pleasure in calling themselves as Lords of Kuntala. Taila is also believed to have killed Munja, the Paramara king of Malava.

37. During the reign of which of the following Vijayadityavarman assumed the title of Maharaja?

[A] Jayasimha I
[B] Jayasimha II
[C] Vijayaditya II
[D] None of the above

Correct Answer: B [Jayasimha II]

Jayasimha II  ruled from about AD. 696 to 709. It was during the reign of Jayasimha II that Vijayadityavarman assumed the title of Maharaja and threw off the yoke of the then-ruler Jayasimha II.

38. Shivaskandavarman ruled during which of the following periods?

[A] 3rd Century A.D.
[B] 4th Century A.D.
[C] 6th Century A.D.
[D] 7th Century A.D.

Correct Answer: B [4th Century A.D.]

According to some inscriptions, one of the earliest rulers of the Pallava Dynasty was Shivaskandavarman. It is believed that he ruled in the early 4th century CE from 275 A.D. to 300 A.D.

39. Parameshvaraman I was succeeded by which of the following kings?

[A] Mahendravarman I
[B] Narsimhavarman II
[C] Paramesdhvaraman II
[D] Mahendravarman II

Correct Answer: B [Narsimhavarman II]

Narsimhavarman II also known as Rajasimha ruled the Pallavas in the south from 700 A.D. to 728 A.D. By the time Rajasimha ascended the throne, the Pallavas had the most powerful military force in the subcontinent.

40. Rajadhiraja died on the battlefield while fighting in the battle of Koppam against which of the following kings?

[A] Jayasimha II
[B] Someshwar
[C] Jayasimha I
[D] Jagadhekamalla I

Correct Answer: B [Someshwar]

Rajadhiraja was one of the greatest and bravest warriors in the Chola dynasty. He died in the battlefield while fighting in the battle of Koppam against Someshwar, a western Chalukyan king.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

41. The exclusive assembly of Brahmans/gatherings of the adult male members in the agraharas in the Chola empire was referred to as?

[A] Ur
[B] Sabha
[C] Samiti
[D] None of the above

Correct Answer: B [Sabha]

Sabha or Mahasabha during the Chola empie referred to the exclusive assembly of Brahmans/gatherings of the adult male members in the agraharas, that is, the rent free brahmadeya villages. These assemblies enjoyed a large measure of autonomy.

42. A lot of beads were discovered from Mohenjo-Daro in Indus Valley Civilization. Most of these beads were made of __?

[A] Terracota
[B] Jasper
[C] Lapis
[D] Steatite

Correct Answer: D [Steatite]

The beautiful beads are one of the important discoveries of Mohenjodaro. Majority of the beads are made of fired steatite. Other materials in making beads include Agate, Carnelian, Lapis Lazuli, grossular garnet, serpentine and amazonite.

43. Who was last recognized king of the Gupta dynasty?

[A] Ashoka
[B] Vishnugupta
[C] Samudragupta
[D] Bimbisara

Correct Answer: B [Vishnugupta]

Samudragupta was the second king of the Gupta Empire. He succeeded his father Chandragupta I around 335 or 350 CE, and ruled until 375 CE. Vishnugupta was one of the lesser-known kings of the Gupta Dynasty. He is generally considered to be the last recognized king of the Gupta Empire. His reign lasted 10 years, from 540 to 550 CE. Ashoka was emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE. Bimbisara was a king of the Magadha empire and belonged to the Haryanaka dynasty.

44. Which kind of language is used in the early Buddhist scriptures?

[A] Pictographical texts
[B] Prakrit texts
[C] Pali texts
[D] Sanskrit texts

Correct Answer: C [Pali texts]

Pali is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism are preserved. The Pali texts are the oldest collection of Buddhist scriptures preserved in the language in which they were written down.

45. Who was the founder of Vakataka dynasty?

[A] Nagabhata
[B] Pravarasena
[C] Rudrasena
[D] Vindhyashakti

Correct Answer: D [Vindhyashakti]

Vindhyashakti was the founder of the Vakataka dynasty. His name is derived from the name of the goddess Vindhya. Vakataka dynasty, Indian ruling house originating in the central Deccan in the mid-3rd century AD. The Vakatakas, like many of the contemporary dynasties of the Deccan, claimed Brahmanical origin.

Top 100 Important Questions from Ancient History

46. Which dynasty developed the Gandhara School of Art in ancient India?

[A] Chola dynasty
[B] Kushana dynasty
[C] Mauryan dynasty
[D] Gupta dynasty

Correct Answer: B [Kushana dynasty]

The Gandhara School of art developed in first century AD along with Mathura School during the reign of Kushana emperor Kanishka. Gandhara School was based on Greco-Roman norms encapsulating foreign techniques and an alien spirit. It is also known as Greek-Buddhist School of art.

47. Who was titled as ‘Light of Asia’?

[A] Jesus Christ
[B] Swami Vivekananda
[C] Prophet Mohammad
[D] Gautam Buddha

Correct Answer: D [Gautam Buddha]

Gautam Buddha is also known as the ‘Light of Asia’ and the ‘Enlightened One.’ He was given the title of ‘Light of Asia’ by great historian Edward Arnold. Born as Siddhartha Gautam in the royal family of Kapilvastu, he received the title of ‘Buddha or the Enlightened One after the attainment of enlightenment.

48. Which is the oldest Indian civilization?

[A] Egyptian civilization
[B] Indus Valley Civilization
[C] Mesopotamian civization
[D] None of the above

Correct Answer: B [Indus Valley Civilization ]

Indus Valley civilization was the oldest civilization to have flourished in the Indian subcontinent. Generally dated between 3000 B.C to 1800 B.C, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was a Bronze Age civilization.

49. Which among the given Gupta kings stopped the Huns from invading India__?

[A] Samudragupta
[B] Kumaragupta
[C] Skandagupta
[D] Chandragupta

Correct Answer: C [ Skandagupta ]

Skandagupta was a Gupta Emperor of northern India. He crushed the Hun invasion in 455, & managed to keep them at bay; however, the expense of the wars drained the empire’s resources & contributed to its decline. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors who faced some of the greatest challenges in the annals of the empire having to contend with the Pushyamitras & the Hunas (a name by which the “White Huns” were known in India).

50. Which Indus Valley Civilization site provides evidence of a dockyard?

[A] Rakhigarhi
[B] Harappa
[C] Surkutda
[D] Lothal

Correct Answer: D [Lothal ]

The port-city of Lothal, situated near the Sabarmati and Bhogwa rivers in Gujarat, India, possesses the world’s earliest known dockyard connected to a township. Excavations led by S.R Rao from 1954-62 revealed a tide-fed basin measuring approx 220 x 35 meters linked by a 12 meter wide inlet channel to the river allowing ships and boats to enter. Located east of the city, it indicates overseas trade was vital to Harappans. Lothal was likely a chief port for importing raw materials like copper, tin and semi-precious stones and exporting beadwork, ivory and cotton textiles.


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