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Indian Geography Handwritten Notes/Indian Geography Notes in English/Introduction of Indian Geography

Indian Geography


Here are Indian Geography Handwritten Notes: India is a vast and diverse country, with a rich and varied geography. India occupies the south-central part of the Asian continent and is surrounded by water on three sides: the Arabian Sea to the west, the Bay of Bengal to the east, and the Indian Ocean to the south. India shares its land borders with seven other countries: Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh.

India’s geography can be divided into six major regions:

  1. The Himalayas,
  2. The Northern Plains,
  3. The Peninsular Plateau,
  4. The Thar Desert,
  5. The Coastal Plains,
  6. The Islands.


  1. The Himalayas are the world’s highest mountain range, stretching along India’s northern border with China, Nepal, and Bhutan. The Himalayas are home to many peaks above 8,000 meters, including Mount Everest, Kanchenjunga, and Nanda Devi. The Himalayas also act as a natural barrier that protects India from cold winds from Central Asia and influences India’s climate and monsoon patterns.
  2. The Northern Plains are formed by the alluvial deposits of three major river systems: the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. The Northern Plains are one of the most fertile and densely populated regions in the world, supporting more than 40% of India’s population. The Northern Plains are also known for their cultural diversity and historical significance, as they have witnessed many civilizations, empires, and invasions.
  3. The Peninsular Plateau is the oldest and largest landmass in India, covering most of central and southern India. The Peninsular Plateau is composed of ancient rocks that have been eroded by wind and water over millions of years. The Peninsular Plateau is divided into several sub-regions, such as the Deccan Plateau, the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats, and the Central Highlands. The Peninsular Plateau is rich in mineral resources and biodiversity.
  4. The Thar Desert is located in the north-western part of India, along the border with Pakistan. The Thar Desert is one of the largest hot deserts in the world, covering an area of about 200,000 square kilometers. The Thar Desert is characterized by its arid climate, sandy terrain, and sparse vegetation. The Thar Desert is also known for its cultural heritage and wildlife.
  5. The Coastal Plains are narrow strips of land that run along India’s coastline on both sides of the Peninsular Plateau. The Coastal Plains are divided into two parts: the Western Coastal Plains and the Eastern Coastal Plains. The Western Coastal Plains are narrower and more rugged than the Eastern Coastal Plains. The Western Coastal Plains are also influenced by the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon, while the Eastern Coastal Plains are influenced by the Bay of Bengal branch of the monsoon. The Coastal Plains are important for India’s economy and tourism, as they have many ports, beaches, and backwaters.
  6. The Islands are two groups of islands that lie off India’s mainland: the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, and the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a chain of about 300 islands that cover an area of about 8,000 square kilometers. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are known for their tropical forests, coral reefs, and indigenous tribes. The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of about 36 islands that cover an area of about 32 square kilometers. The Lakshadweep Islands are known for their lagoons, coconut palms, and marine life.

Famous Landmarks in India:


India is a country with a rich and different geography, culture, and history. Numerous famous milestones in India show its beauty and heritage. Some of the most famous milestones in India are

Taj Mahal: The Taj Mahal is one of the seven splendors of the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It’s a white marble tomb built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his loved woman
Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is located in Agra and is considered a symbol of love and fineness.
Gateway of India: The Gateway of India is a monumental bow that overlooks the Arabian Sea in Mumbai. It was erected to commemorate the visit of King George V and Queen Mary to India in 1911. The Gateway of India is also a popular spot for excursionists and locals to enjoy the views of the ocean and the boats.
Red Fort: The Red Fort is a massive bastion that was the hearthstone of the Mughal emperors nearly 200 times. The Red Fort is located in Delhi and is made of red sandstone. The Red Fort contains numerous palaces, auditoriums, museums, and galleries that display the art and armature of the Mughal period.
Hawa Mahal: The Hawa Mahal is a palace that resembles a honeycomb with 953 windows. It was erected by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh in 1799 as a part of the City Palace complex in Jaipur. The Hawa Mahal was designed to allow the royal women to observe the road life without being seen.
Lotus Temple: The Lotus Temple is a Baha I House of Worship that has the distinctive shape of a lotus flower. It was completed in 1986 and is located in New Delhi. The Lotus Temple is open to people of all faiths and backgrounds who wish to supplicate or meditate in its serene atmosphere.


Here is some more information about soil, hills, dams, rivers, glaciers, and national parks in India:


Soil: Soil is the upper layer of the earth’s surface that supports plant growth and provides nutrients and water for living organisms. Soil is formed by the weathering of rocks and the decomposition of organic matter over time. Soil types vary depending on the climate, topography, vegetation, and human activities of a region. India has a diverse range of soil types, such as alluvial soil, black soil, red soil, laterite soil, forest soil, desert soil, saline soil, and peaty soil. Each soil type has its characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages for agriculture and other uses.

Hills: A hill is a natural elevation of the land that is lower and less steep than a mountain. Hills are usually formed by the erosion of rocks or the accumulation of sediments over time. Hills can have different shapes and sizes, such as conical, dome-shaped, flat-topped, or elongated. Hills can also have different names depending on their location and features, such as knoll, mound, butte, mesa, plateau, or ridge. India has many hills that are part of its varied geography and landscape. Some of the famous hills in India are the Aravalli Hills, the Vindhya Hills, the Satpura Hills, the Western Ghats, the Eastern Ghats, the Shivalik Hills, and the Nilgiri Hills.

Dams: A dam is a barrier that is built across a river or a stream to stop or regulate the flow of water. Dams are usually constructed for various purposes, such as irrigation, hydroelectric power generation, flood control, water supply, navigation, recreation, or wildlife conservation. Dams can have different designs and structures depending on their function and location. Some common types of dams are gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams, embankment dams, and barrage dams. India has many dams that are important for its economy and development. Some of the largest and most famous dams in India are the Bhakra Nangal Dam on the Sutlej River in Himachal Pradesh and Punjab; the Hirakud Dam on the Mahanadi River in Odisha; the Tehri Dam on the Bhagirathi River in Uttarakhand; the Sardar Sarovar Dam on the Narmada River in Gujarat; and the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam on the Krishna River in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.

River: A river is a natural stream of water that flows from a source to a mouth. Rivers are usually fed by rainfall or snowmelt from mountains or glaciers. Rivers can have different shapes and patterns depending on their course and terrain. Some common types of rivers are straight rivers, meandering rivers, braided rivers, anastomosing rivers, and deltaic rivers. Rivers can also have different names depending on their size and features such as creek, brook, stream tributary confluence estuary, or gulf. India has many rivers that are vital for its ecology culture and civilization. Some of the major rivers in India are the Ganga Yamuna Brahmaputra Indus Godavari Krishna Kaveri Narmada Tapi Mahanadi and Sabarmati.

Glacier: A glacier is a large mass of ice that forms from the accumulation and compaction of snow over time. Glaciers move slowly under their weight and gravity along valleys or slopes. Glaciers can have different types and shapes depending on their formation and location. Some common types of glaciers are alpine glaciers continental glaciers ice caps ice sheets ice shelves and ice streams. Glaciers can also have different names depending on their features such as cirque glacier valley glacier piedmont glacier tidewater glacier outlet glacier or hanging glacier. India has many glaciers that are part of its Himalayan region and contribute to its water resources. Some of the prominent glaciers in India are the Siachen Glacier Gangotri Glacier Yamunotri Glacier Nanda Devi Glacier Zanskar Glacier Pindari Glacier Milam Glacier and Chaturangi Glacier.

National Park: A national park is a protected area that is established by a government to conserve natural resources wildlife habitats biodiversity cultural heritage or scenic beauty. National parks are usually open to public access for recreation education research or tourism but with certain restrictions and regulations to ensure environmental sustainability. National parks can have different sizes shapes landscapes ecosystems flora fauna climate history or management plans depending on their objectives and characteristics. India has many national parks that are home to some of the rarest and endangered species of plants animals birds reptiles amphibians fish insects and microorganisms. Some of the well-known national parks in India are Jim Corbett National Park Kaziranga National Park Ranthambore National Park Kanha National Park Bandhavgarh National Park Sundarbans National Park Gir National Park Periyar National Park and Keoladeo National Park.






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