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Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure .The history of South India spans more than 4000 years, with many dynasties rising and collapsing. The period roughly between the 3rd century B.C. and 3rd century A.D. in South India (the area lying to the south of river Krishna and Tungabhadra) is known as Sangam Period.

Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

    • It has been named after the Sangam academies held during that period that flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandya kings of Madurai.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

      • These literary works were the earliest specimens of Dravidian literature.

      • According to the Tamil legends, there were three Sangams (Academy of Tamil poets) held in ancient South India popularly called Muchchangam.

      • The First Sangam is believed to be held at Madurai, attended by gods and legendary sages. No literary work of this Sangam is available.

      • The Second Sangam was held at Kapadapuram, only Tolkappiyam survives from this.

      • The Third Sangam was also held at Madurai.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

      •   During Ashoka’s reign (268-232 BCE), the three Tamil dynasties of Chola, Chera, and Pandya ruled the south.

      • The two epics Silappathikaram is written by Elango Adigal and Manimegalai by Sittalai Sattanar. They also provide valuable details about the Sangam society and polity.

      • South India, during the Sangam Age, was ruled by three dynasties- the Cheras, Cholas, and Pandyas.

    Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

    Cheras:

    Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

      • The Cheras controlled the central and northern parts of Kerala and the Kongu region of Tamil Nadu.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure.

      • Vanji was their capital and the ports of the west coast, Musiri and Tondi, were under their control.

      • The emblem of Cheras was “bow and arrow”.

      • The Pugalur inscription of the 1st century AD has reference to three generations of Chera rulers.

      • The Cheras owed its importance to trade with the Romans. They also built a temple of Augustus there.

      •  The greatest ruler of Cheras was Senguttuvan, the Red Chera or the Good Chera, who belonged to the 2nd century A.D.

      • His military achievements have been chronicled in epic Silapathikaram, with details about his expedition to the Himalayas where he defeated many north Indian rulers.

      • Senguttuvan introduced the Pattini cult or the worship of Kannagi as the ideal wife in Tamil Nadu.

      • He was the first to send an embassy to China from South India.

      • Cheran  Senguttuvan belonged to 2nd century A.D. His younger brother was Elango Adigal, the author of Silappathigaram.

    Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

    Cholas

        • Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure  
        • The Cholas controlled the central and northern parts of Tamil Nadu.

        • Their core area of rule was the Kaveri delta, later known as Cholamandalam.

        • Their capital was Uraiyur (near Tiruchirapalli town) and Puhar or Kaviripattinam was an alternative royal residence and chief port town.

        • Tiger was their emblem.

        • The Cholas also maintained an efficient navy.

        • King Karikala was a famous king of the Sangam Cholas.

        • Many Sangam poems mention the Battle of Venni where he defeated the confederacy of Cheras, Pandyas and eleven minor chieftains.

        • He founded the port city of Puhar (identical with Kaveripattinam) and constructed 160 km of embankment along the Kaveri River.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

      Kallanai Dam / Grand Anicut:

      ▶ Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure-It is the oldest dam in India.

      ▶  The dam was built in the 2nd century AD by King Karikala Chola of the Chola Dynasty.

      ▶  The people of Tamil Nadu are still served by it.

      ▶  The dam is situated on the River Kaveri, about 20 kilometers from Tiruchirapalli.

        Dam River
      Highest Dam Tehri Dam (Uttarakhand) Bhagirathi
      Longest Dam Hirakud Dam (Odisha) Mahanadi
      Oldest Dam Kallanai Dam (Tamil Nadu) Kaveri

          •  The Chola dynasty, on the other hand, began to decline around the fourth century CE.

          • This period coincided with the rise of the Kalabhras, who moved down from northern Tamil country, displacing the established kingdoms and ruling over most of south India for nearly 300 years.

          • In 850 CE, Vijayalaya Chola resurrected the Chola dynasty by conquering Thanjavur and making it his capital after defeating Ilango Mutharaiyar.

        Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

        Pandyas

            • Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure.
            • The Pandyas ruled from Madurai.

            • Korkai was their main port, It was famous for pearl fishery

            • Their emblem was the “Fish”.

            • As the legend goes, one King of this dynasty Sarangdhwaj had participated in the Mahabharata war.

          Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

          Pandayas

           Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

            • The Pandyas ruled from Madurai.

            • Korkai was their main port, It was famous for pearl fishery

            • Their emblem was the “Fish”.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

            • As the legend goes, one King of this dynasty Sarangdhwaj had participated in the Mahabharata war.

            • The Pandya Kingdom was first mentioned by Megasthenese who said that their kingdom was famous for pearls.

            • Madurai was their capital, situated on the bank of river Vagai. The word Pandya is derived from the Tamil word, ‘Pandi’ which means the ‘bull’,

              • Sati, caste, idol worship were common. Widows were treated badly.

              • Maduraikkanji written by Mangudi Maruthanar describes the socioeconomic condition of the Pandya country including the flourishing seaport of Korkai

              • The Pandyan rule during the Sangam Age began to decline due to the invasion of the Kalabhras.

              • The dynasty was revived in the early sixth century by Kadungon, who drove the Kalabhras out of Tamil country and ruled from Madurai.

            Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

            Pallava Dynasty

                • The Pallava dynasty was an ancient Indian dynasty that ruled over parts of southern India, particularly the region of Tamil Nadu, during the 4th to 9th centuries CE.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure.

                • Journey Through Time: Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure.
                • Ruling a substantial portion of the Deccan, also known as Tondaimandalam.

                • Simhavishnu defeated Kalabhras and inaugurated the rule of imperial Pallavas.

                • Kanchi: Under them became an important temple town and a center of trade and commerce.

              Mahendravarman I (600-630 AD)  Under him, the Pallavas became a major political power.
              Title-
              Mattavilasa-Addicted to pleasures
              Chitrakarapuli-Tiger amount the painters
              Gunabhara-Virtuous
              Chattakari- temple builder
                Battle of Pullalur, AD 618-19: killed by Chalukyan King Pulakesin II.
              •  Mattavilasa Prahasana (Sanskrit satire): Written by Mahendravarman I.
              •  Monuments at Mamallapuram: Those dedicated to Shiva were constructed under his rule.
              Mahendravarman I (600-630 AD)  Under him, the Pallavas became a major political power.
              Titles:
              Mattavilasa-  Addicted to pleasures
              Chitrakarapuli- Tiger among the painters
              Gunabhara- Virtuous
              Chattakari- Temple builder, and
               Battle of Pullalur, AD 618-19: Killed by Chalukyan King Pulakesin II.
              • Mattavilasa Prahasana (Sanskrit satire): Written by Mahendravarman I.
              •  Monuments at Mamallapuram: Those dedicated to Shiva were constructed under his rule.
              Narsimhavarman I (630-668 AD)

              He is considered the greatest Pallava ruler.
              He took the title of Mamalla (great warrior).
               Vatapikonda: He defeated and killed Chalukyan ruler Pulakesin II and destroyed the Chalukyan capital Vatapi. He took the
              title Vatapikonda (conqueror of Vatapi).

                Mahabalipuram: It was a Port city founded by Narsimhavarman I.
              Seven Ratha Temple under his reign.

              Hsuen Tsang: The Chinese traveller visited Kanchipuram in 642 CE during his reign.

              Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure

              Narsimhaavarman II (Rajamalla) (695-722 AD)

              ▶  He sent embassies to China.

              ▶  He is credited with the construction of Shore Temple and Kailashnath Temple.

              ▶  The Pallavas had different capital cities during its rule. Initially, their capital was Kanchipuram, but it later shifted to Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) and even to other locations like Kumbakonam and Thanjavur during different periods.

              ▶  The last of the Pallavas, Aparajita Varma was defeated by Aditya Chola I by the early tenth century A.D.

              Art and Architecture under Pallavas of Kanchi

                  • Dravidian Style: Rock-cut architecture laid the foundation for the Dravidian style of architecture in south India. The Pallavas are credited with the introduction of this style.Discovering India’s Amazing History Adventure.

                  • The evolution of Pallava architecture can be divided into four different stages or styles, viz. Mahendra Style, Mamalla Style, Rajasimha Style, Nandivarman Style.

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